The effect of carbonic maceration during winemaking on the color, aroma and sensory properties of ‘Muscat Hamburg’ wine
Zhang, Y.-S.; Du, Gang; Gao, Y.-T.; Wang, Liwen; Meng, Dan; Li, B.-J.; Brennan, Charles S.; Wang, M.-Y.; Zhao, Hui; Wang, S.-Y.; Guan, W.-Q.
This is the first study on the effect of carbonic maceration on the quality (color, aroma profile and sensory properties) of Muscat Hamburg, contrasting two winemaking procedures used in Tianjin (classical white and red-winemaking techniques). The values of C* (psychometric chroma), a* (measure of redness) and b* (measure of yellowness) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the carbonic macerated wine than in red wine. However, there were no visual differences in color, and classical red wine and carbonic macerated wine had similar h (hue angle) values and located in the red region. Thirty-two aromatic compounds were identified and quantified in Muscat Hamburg wines. The content of volatile compounds (6384.97 µg/L) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the carbonic macerated Muscat Hamburg wine than in the other kinds of wine. This result led to the carbonic macerated wine having the highest odor activity values (OAVs) and sensory evaluation scores (86.8 points), which correlates with an “excellent” sensory perception. This study demonstrated that carbonic maceration significantly improved the quality of Muscat Hamburg wine based on volatile analysis and sensory evaluation compared with other conventional methods. Therefore, carbonic maceration could be well suited for making Muscat Hamburg wine.... [Show full abstract]