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dc.contributor.authorBlack, Amandaen
dc.date.accessioned2010-03-25T22:20:49Z
dc.date.issued2010en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/1561
dc.description.abstractIt is widely accepted that bioavailability, rather than total soil concentration, is preferred when assessing the risk associated with metal contamination. Despite this, debate continues on what constitutes a bioavailable pool and how to best predict bioavailability, especially in relation to crop plants. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess and validate measures of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) bioavailability in a range of soils amended with metal salts and biosolids. Six potential measures of bioavailability were investigated and compared: total metal; 0.04 M EDTA extraction; 0.05 M Ca(NO₃)₂ extraction; soil solution extracted using rhizon probes; effective solution concentration (CE) determined using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT); and modelled free ion activities (WHAM 6.0). These were compared to shoot metal concentrations obtained from plants grown in three soils with contrasting properties treated with biosolids and metal salts. The first study involved a wheat seedling (Triticum aestivum) assay carried out under controlled environmental conditions on incubated soils treated with metal salts and biosolids. Results showed that the presence of biosolids resulted in increases of DOC, salinity, Ca and Mg in soil solution as well as total concentrations of Cu and Zn, dry matter was also adversely affected by increased levels of salinity. The addition of biosolids did not significantly alter the extractability or solubility of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn although concentrations of Cd in shoots were significantly lower in plants grown in biosolids amended soils compared with unamended soils. The second study involved a field experiment that used 20 cm diameter by 30 cm deep soil monoliths of the same three soils treated with metals and biosolids, and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was grown for 24 months. Results revealed the addition of biosolids significantly increased the amount of DOC, salinity, Ca and Mg in solution. The presence of biosolids also significantly altered the bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, as measured by soil solution, CE and free ion activity. However, this change had little effect on plant metal uptake. The length of time following treatment application had the greatest effect on soil chemistry and metal availability, resulting in pH decreases and increases in DOC, soil solution salinity, Ca and Mg. The free ion activities of each metal increased with time, as did soil solution Cd and Zn and CE-Cu, with results for Zn indicative of migration through the soil profile with time. Plant uptake of Ni and Zn also changed with time. Nickel concentrations in shoots decreased, while concentrations of Zn in shoots increased. The findings from the two studies demonstrated that biosolids increased the amount of DOC, salinity, Ca and Mg present in soil solution. In the lysimeter study measures of metal availability were affected in soils amended with biosolids, but this did not effect shoot concentrations. The overall predictive strengths of the six potential measures of bioavailability was investigated using results from the previously described experiments and related studies carried out by ESR and Lincoln University using nine different soils amended with combinations of biosolids and metal salts. Of the four metals Ni provided the strongest correlations between metal bioavailability and shoot concentrations, with 0.05 M Ca(NO₃)₂ extraction giving the strongest relationship for Ni concentrations in shoots (r² = 0.73). This suggests that the solubility of Ni is highly indicative of shoot concentrations and that Ca(NO₃)₂ is a robust measure of Ni bioavailability. In addition Ca(NO₃)₂ provided the best estimate of Zn bioavailability (r² = 0.65), and CE-Cd provided the best measure of Cd bioavailability, although it could only describe 47 % of shoot Cd concentration. Results for Cu were typical of previously described studies as assays of Cu availability are almost always poorly correlated with shoot concentrations, with total Cu having the strongest relationship (r² = 0.34). Methods based on the extractability and solubility of Cu in soils were poor indicators of Cu concentration in shoots. Overall, the addition of biosolids did not alter the outcome of these bioavailability assays, and results indicated that total metal concentrations present in the soils and biosolids matrix, plus length of time since soil treatment, had a greater affect on metal bioavailability.en
dc.format.extent1-224en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.subjectcopperen
dc.subjectnickelen
dc.subjectsoilsen
dc.subjectcadmiumen
dc.subjectzincen
dc.subjectryegrassen
dc.subjectbiosolidsen
dc.subjectbioavailabilityen
dc.subjectwheaten
dc.subjectTriticum aestivum L.en
dc.titleBioavailability of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in soils treated with biosolids and metal saltsen
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300100 Soil and Water Sciences::300103 Soil chemistryen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300100 Soil and Water Sciences::300102 Soil biologyen
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection Research Centreen
lu.contributor.unitResearch Management Officeen
lu.contributor.unit/LU/Research Management Office/2018 PBRF Staff groupen
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/BPRC
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/2018 PBRF Staff group
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden
dc.publisher.placeChristchurchen
lu.identifier.orcid0000-0001-7302-0895


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