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dc.contributor.authorJacometti, Marco Alexander Azonen_US
dc.date.accessioned2007-06-13T03:55:19Z
dc.date.available2007-06-13T03:55:19Z
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/27
dc.description.abstractOrganic mulches and cover crops mulched in situ were assessed for their effects on B. cinerea primary inoculum and disease levels in inflorescences at flowering and/or bunches at harvest. Organic mulches were used to enhance biological degradation of vine debris to reduce levels of B. cinerea primary inoculum the following season. Four mulch types (anaerobically and aerobically fermented marc (grape pressings), inter-row grass clippings and shredded office paper) were applied under ten-year-old Riesling vines in a ten-replicate randomized block design in New Zealand over two consecutive years. Plastic mesh bags, each containing naturally infected vine debris, were placed under vines on bare ground (control) and at the soil-mulch interface, in winter (July) 2003 and 2004. In each year, half the bags were recovered at flowering (December) and the remainder at leaf plucking (February), for assessment of B. cinerea sporulation from the vine debris and debris degradation rate. Bait lamina probes, which measure soil biological activity, were placed in the soil-mulch interface three weeks before each of the two bag-recovery dates in both years and were then removed and assessed at the same times as were the bags. All mulches led to a reduction in B. cinerea sporulation. This reduction was significantly correlated with elevated rates of vine debris decomposition and increased soil biological activity. Over both years, compared with the controls, all treatments gave a 3-20-fold reduction in B. cinerea sporulation, a 1.6-2.6-fold increase in vine debris degradation and in the two marc and the paper treatments, a 1.8-4-fold increase in activity of soil organisms. The mulches also altered vine characteristics and elevated their resistance to B. cinerea through changes to the soil environment. Functional soil biological activity, as measured by Biolog Ecoplates and bait lamina probes, was increased 2-4 times in the two marc and paper treatments, compared with the control, an effect relating to the elevated soil moisture and reduced temperature fluctuations under these mulches. Soil nutrient levels and the C:N ratios were also affected in these treatments. The mulched paper lowered vine canopy density by up to 1.4 times that of the other treatments, an effect which probably led to elevated light penetration into the canopy and consequent increased canopy temperature, photosynthesis and lowered canopy humidity. These changes to soil and vine characteristics increased grape skin strength by up to 10% in the paper treatment and sugar concentrations by 1.2-1.4 °Brix in the two marc and paper treatments. The severity of B. cinerea infections in the anaerobic marc, aerobic marc and paper treatments were reduced to 12%, 3% and 2.2% of the control, respectively, in field assessments averaged over two consecutive harvests. Cover crops mulched in situ had similar effects to those of the organic mulches, increasing soil biological activity and reducing B. cinerea primary inoculum and the severity of B. cinerea infection in grapes at harvest (2006). Inter-row phacelia and ryegrass were mulched in winter 2005 and compared with a bare ground control, under 10-year-old Chardonnay vines in a ten-replicate randomized block design. Functional soil biological activity increased by 1.5-4.5 times in the two cover crop treatments compared with the control, an effect possibly related to elevated soil moisture in these treatments. This increase in soil moisture and soil biological activity increased vine debris degradation, reduced B. cinerea primary inoculum on the debris and decreased B. cinerea severity at flowering (December 2005) and harvest (April 2006). These results show the potential of organic mulches and cover crops mulched in situ to enhance soil ecosystem services and improve the sustainability of viticultural practices.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen_US
dc.rights.urihttps://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/page/rightsen_US
dc.subjectBotrytis cinereaen_US
dc.subjectcover cropen_US
dc.subjectmulchen_US
dc.subjectconservation biological controlen_US
dc.subjectsoil biological activityen_US
dc.subjectvine debris degradationen_US
dc.subjectprimary inoculumen_US
dc.subjectgrapevinesen_US
dc.subjectvine resistanceen_US
dc.subjectyielden_US
dc.subjectgrape qualityen_US
dc.titleEnhancing ecosystem services in vineyards to improve the management of Botrytis cinereaen
dc.typeThesisen_US
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen_US
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300300 Horticulture::300305 Oenology and viticultureen_US
lu.thesis.supervisorWratten, Steveen_US
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection and Ecology Divisionen_US


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