Implementing tourism management frameworks in New Zealand : presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Resource Management, Environmental Management Group, Environmental Management & Design Division, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
In this report the New Zealand system for managing the environmental effects of tourism and a number of decision-making frameworks developed to improve this type of management are examined. Based on this review, conclusions are developed about the potential to implement these frameworks given their key requirements and the performance of New Zealand's decision-making structures and processes in each of these criteria. Options and recommendations are developed according to these findings with the aim of improving core deficiencies in the existing approach to management and planning for tourism's environmental effects. The primary conclusion of this report is that the current system for managing the environmental effects of tourism is insufficiently placed to implement frameworks for impact management and planning. This conclusion was developed by firstly examining New Zealand's existing management system. This revealed an array of organisational and legislative structures and processes operating across a number of scales with varying degrees of influence. The complexity that resulted from this often led to ad hoc and intuitive decision making and ineffective management outcomes. Secondly, some of the contemporary decision-making frameworks developed to overcome these difficulties were reviewed. From this appraisal, a number of similarities were observed and a set of criteria for their effective use was developed. These criteria included a need for 1. Multidisciplinary management; 2. Sound natural and social science information; 3. Effective interagency/intersectoral co-operation and co-ordination; 4. Public involvement and consultation; 5. Clear and measurable management objectives; 6. Indicators of environmental change; and 7. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Using these as criteria, New Zealand's system for the management of visitor impacts was assessed and found to be inadequate. Many deficiencies were related to basic problems such as a lack of sound information, public involvement, or interagency co-operation and coordination. Given these inadequacies, a number of recommendations were developed. Directed at various agencies, they reflect the priority areas that should be addressed to improve decision-making processes at all levels and potentially enable the adoption of tourism management and planning frameworks in the future.... [Show full abstract]
Keywordstourism impacts; New Zealand; tourism sector; management; conservation; Resource Management Act; environmental effects; planning
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